General Safety Information

Sample of Wheel Label

Below is an example of a label that can be found on United Abrasives’ wheels. We feel it is important to include as much information as possible on our labels so the end user has the pertinent information he needs to operate the wheel. All of our labels are baked on the wheels during the manufacturing process, so the label remains intact throughout the life of the wheel.

Storage and Handling

All abrasive wheels are breakable and therefore care shall be exercised in handling and storage to prevent damage. The following rules, which are based on experience, should be observed:

• Handle wheel carefully to prevent dropping or bumping
• Do not roll wheels (hoop fashion)
• Use trucks or other suitable conveyances to provide support and protection in transporting all wheels which cannot be carried by hand
• Suitable racks, bins, drawers or boxes shall be provided to store the various types of wheels used
• Abrasive wheels should be stored in a dry area not subject to extreme temperature changes since some bonds may be affected by excessive humidity and temperature differentials
• Racks should be located as near as practical to the grinding location, but never where there is danger of damage from passing trucks, crane handling equipment or excessive vibration

ANSI Standard Marking System
The following chart is an example of the ANSI standard marking system for identifying grinding wheels and other bonded abrasives.


Primary grain used
to make the wheel

A = Aluminum Oxide
C = Silicon Carbide
Z = Alumina Zirconium
SG = Seeded Gel

Size of the abrasive grain
Coarse  Medium  Fine  Very Fine
8              30         70         220
10              36         80         240
12              46         90         280
14              54       100         320
16              60       120         400
20                          150         500
24                          180         600

Hardness of the bond
Soft          Medium             Hard

A         N         R         T         Z

Type of bond used
B Resinoid
BF Resinoid Reinforced
E Shellac
O Oxychloride
R Rubber
RF Rubber Reinforced
S Silicate
V Vitrified

Wheel Configurations
Bonded abrasive wheels have different configurations depending upon the tool the wheel is used on and the desired end result. Below are the configurations that a wheel can have:

Each wheel configuration is shown on the pages throughout this catalog. The A, B, and C connotations represent the size of the wheel.

A = The diameter of the wheel
B = The width or thickness of the wheel
C = The bore of the wheel

Type 1

Straight Wheel

Type 27

Depressed Center Wheel

Type 16

Rounded Cone

Type 28

Saucer-shaped Wheel

Type 17

Straight Sided Cone

Type 29

Flexible Wheel

Type 18


Type 11

Flaring Cup Wheel

Type 18R

The following information about safety should be used only as a guide. All products listed in this catalog shall be used in accordance with safety regulations set by OSHA and by the directive described by the American National Safety Institute B7.1, the Canadian Standard Association Safety Code B-173-5 and by the American Brush Manufacturers Association covering: Speed, Safety Guards, Flanges, Mounting Procedures, General Operating Rules, Handling, Storage, and Inspection of General Machine Conditions.
Avoid inhalation of dust generated by grinding and cutting operations. Exposure to dust may cause respiratory ailments as well as irritation to eyes and skin. In most cases, a greater hazard is the exposure to the dust/fumes from the base material being ground or paint or coatings applied to it. Use approved NIOSH or MSHA respirators, safety glasses or face shields, gloves and protective clothing. Provide adequate ventilation to eliminate dust or to maintain dust levels below the permissible exposure level for nuisance dust as classified by OSHA. Refer to Material Safety Data Sheet for further information.
All operators must read and understand safety information thoroughly.
Follow Safety Instructions:
You must follow all operator and safety instructions, as well as all common safety practices which reduce the likelihood of physical injury.
Operate Wheels at Recommended Speeds:
It is imperative that abrasive wheels be operated at recommended safe speeds. For safety reasons no abrasive wheel shall be operated at a speed greater than that indicated on the blotter or wheel.

Do's and Don'ts

Do always handle and store wheels in a careful manner.
Do visually inspect all wheels before mounting for possible damage.
Do make sure operating speed of machine does not exceed speed marked on wheel, its blotter or container.
Do check mounting flanges for equal size, relieved as required & correct diameter.
Do use mounting blotters as required by ANSI standards.
Do be sure work rest is properly adjusted on bench, pedestal and floor stand grinders.
Do always use safety guard that covers a minimum of one-half (1/2) the abrasive wheel.
Do allow newly mounted wheels to run at operating speed, with guard in place, for at least one minute before grinding.
Do always wear safety glasses or some type of approved eye protection while grinding or cutting.
Do turn off coolant before stopping wheel to avoid creating an out of-balance condition.
Do follow common sense safety considerations.
Do follow federal, state and local laws and regulations. • Don’t use a wheel that has been dropped or appears to have been abused.
Don’t force a wheel onto the machine or alter the size of the mounting hole. If wheel won’t fit the machine, get one that will.
Don’t ever exceed maximum operating speed established for the wheel.
Don’t use mounting flanges on which the bearing surfaces are not clean, flat and smooth.
Don’t tighten the mounting nut excessively.
Don’t grind on the side of conventional, straight or Type 1 wheels.
Don’t use a wheel on any machine that is not properly designed for the specific application of the wheel.
Don’t start the machine until the safety guard is properly and securely in place.
Don’t jam work into the wheel.
Don’t stand directly in front of a grinding/cutting wheel whenever a machine is in operation.
Don’t grind or cut material for which the wheel is not designed.